The First Department determined that a passing reference to a “Terms and Conditions” page which purported to require all contract disputes to be litigated in North Carolina did not incorporate that page into the document:
… [T]he Terms and Conditions section never appeared in the proposed agreement that plaintiff ultimately reviewed and signed, and it is undisputed that plaintiff never saw the Terms and Conditions page. Indeed, the final 29-page agreement, which did not include the “Terms and Conditions,” was paginated consecutively and signed on each page by both parties. Therefore, contrary to defendants’ suggestions, plaintiff had no reason to ask for any other documents.
Although documents may be incorporated by reference as part of an executed agreement … , the doctrine of incorporation by reference “is grounded on the premise that the material to be incorporated is so well known to the contracting parties that a mere reference to it is sufficient” … . The referenced material must be described in the contract such that it is identifiable beyond all reasonable doubt … . Here the agreement’s oblique reference to an otherwise unidentified Terms and Conditions page, which was never provided to plaintiff, is insufficient to meet this exacting standard … . Eshaghpour v Zepsa Indus., Inc., 2019 NY Slip Op 05490, First Dept 7-9-19