The Fourth Department, reversing Supreme Court, determined the breach of contract cause of action should not have been dismissed. Plaintiff provided a healthcare plan to defendant employer (ESC). Plaintiff alleged defendant extended healthcare coverage to an employee who was not qualified, and thereby breached the underlying contract:
… [D]ismissal under CPLR 3211 (a) (1) was not warranted. In granting the motion insofar as it sought dismissal of the breach of contract cause of action, the court determined that the provision of certain remedies in the Contract precluded plaintiff from seeking additional damages from ESC under the “canon of contract construction expressio unius est exclusio alterius, that is, that the expression of one thing implies the exclusion of the other” … . The court further determined that the indemnification provision in the Contract did not apply to disputes between the parties. We conclude that the court erred in determining that plaintiff was limited to the remedies set forth in the Contract.
“[I]t is a basic tenet of the law of damages that where there has been a violation of a contractual obligation the injured party is entitled to fair and just compensation commensurate with [the] loss” … . “Limitations on a party’s liability will not be implied and to be enforceable must be clearly, explicitly and unambiguously expressed in a contract” … . As a result, “[u]nder New York law, a provision must be included in the agreement limiting a party’s remedies to those specified in the contract in order for courts to find that th[o]se remedies are exclusive” … .
Here, the Contract provided that, in the event an ineligible person was enrolled in the health care plan, plaintiff “may elect” certain remedies. It also addressed the obligations of the person who had received such benefits. There was nothing in the Contract stating that the contractual remedies were plaintiff’s sole and exclusive remedies against ESC, i.e., the other party to the Contract … . HealthNow N.Y., Inc. v David Home Bldrs., Inc., 2019 NY Slip Op 07177, Fourth Dept 10-4-19